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Тема: Сутты о непостоянстве

  1. #1
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    Сутты о непостоянстве

    Раз уж мы говорим о непостоянстве, то пора привести первоисточники. Когда я был в донецком храме Нипподзан Мёходзи, то благодаря любезной помощи жившего там монаха переписал несколько сутт. У меня рука не подымается перевести их кое-как, а на качественный перевод неизвестно когда выпадет время.

    Anguttara Nikaya IX.20

    Velama sutta

    Translated by F.L. Woodward

    Once, when the Exalted One was dwelling near Savatthi, at Jeta Grove, in Anatthapindika's Park, the householder Anatthapindika visited him and after saluting sat down at one side.

    And the Exalted One addresses Anathapindika thus:
    "Is alms given in your family, householder?"
    "Yes, lord, ... but it consists of a coarse mess of broken rice grains together with sour gruel."
    "Householder, whether one give coarse alms or choice, if one give casually, without thought, not with one's own hand, give but orts (apaviddha.m) and with no view to the future; then, wheresoever that almsgiving bear fruit, his mind will not turn to the enjoyment of excellent food, of fine raiment, of rich carriages, to the enjoyment of the excellencies of the five senses; and one's sons and one's daughters, one's slaves, messengers and workfolk will have no desire to listen to one, nor lend an ear, nor bring understanding to bear (on what one says). And wherefore? Such is the result, householder, of deeds done casually.

    But whether one give coarse alms or choice, householder, if one give considerately, after taking thought, with one's own hand, give other than orts and with a view to the future; then, householder, wheresoever that almsgiving bear fruit, his mind will turn to the enjoyment of good food, of fine raiment, of rich carriages, of the excellences of the five senses; and one's sons and one's daughters, one's slaves, messengers and workfolk will desire to listen to one, will lend an ear and bring understanding to bear (on what one says). And wherefore? Such is the result, householder, of deeds done considerately.

    Long ago, householder, there lived a brahman called Velama. He gave very rich gifts, such as these: He gave eighty-four thousand golden bowls, filled with silver; he gave eighty four thousand silver bowls, filled with gold; he gave eighty-four thousand copper bowls filled with treasure Hira~n~na (Commentary: gems); he gave eighty-four thousand steeds, with trappings of gold, with banners of gold, covered with nets of gold thread; he gave eighty-four thousand chariots, spread with lion-skins, tiger-skins, leopard-skins, saffron-coloured blankets, with golden trappings, golden banners, covered with nets of gold thread; he gave eighty-four thousand milch kine, with tethers of fine jute, with milk-pails of silver (ka.msuupadhaara.naani); he gave eighty-four thousand maidens adorned with jeweled ear-rings; he gave eighty-four thousand couches, spread with fleecy covers, white blankets, and woolen flower-embroidered coverlets, covered with rugs of antelope skins, with awnings above and crimson cushions at each end; he gave eighty-four thousand lengths (koti) of finest silk, of fines wool, of finest cotton. And who shall tell of the food and the drink that he gave, food both hard and soft, sweet meats and syrups! They flowed, methinks (vissandati), as rivers!

    Perhaps, householders, you may think thus: maybe Velama, the brahman, who made that very rich gift, was someone else. But think not so, for it was I, who at that time was Velama, the brahman; it was I who made that very rich gift.

    But when that alms was given, householder, there was no one worthy to receive the gift; there was none to sanctify that gift. For, though brahman Velama gave that very rich gift, greater would have been the fruit, had he fed one person of right view (di.t.thi-sampanna.m).

    Though he gave that very rich gift, or though he fed a hundred persons of right view, greater would been the fruit thereof, had he fed one Once-returner.
    Though he gave that very rich gift, or though he fed a hundred Once-returners, greater would been the fruit thereof, had he fed one Non-returner.
    Though he gave that very rich gift, or though he fed a hundred Non-returners, greater would been the fruit thereof, had he fed one Arahant.
    Though he gave that very rich gift, or though he fed a hundred Arahants, greater would been the fruit thereof, had he fed one silent Buddha (Paccekabuddha).
    Though he gave that very rich gift, or though he fed a hundred silent Buddhas, greater would been the fruit thereof, had he fed one Tathagata, arahant, fully awake.
    Though he gave that very rich gift, or though he fed the Order of monks, with the Buddha at their head, greater would have been the fruit thereof, had he built a monastery for the use of the monks of the Order of the surrounding monastery.
    Though he gave that very rich gift, or though he built a monastery for the use of the monks of the Order of the surrounding monastery, greater would have been the fruit thereof, had he took refuge in the Buddha, Dhamma and the Order.
    Though he gave that very rich gift, or though with pious heart he took refuge in the Buddha, Dhamma and the Order, greater would have been the fruit thereof, had he with pious heart undertaken to keep the precept: abstention from taking life, from taking what is not given, from carnal lusts, from lying and from intoxicating liquor, the cause of sloth.
    Though he gave that very rich gift, or though with pious heart he undertook to keep these precepts, greater would have been the fruit thereof, had he made become a mere passing fragrance (gandhuu hana matta.m) of amity (metta).
    Though he gave that very rich gift, or though he made become a mere passing fragrance of amity (metta), greater would have been the fruit thereof, had he made become, just for a finger-snap, the thought of impermanence (anicca-sa~n~naa).

  2. Спасибо от:

    Esanandhavanatthāyadipa (15.05.2009)

  3. #2
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    И как же практикуется апперцепция непостоянства?

    Samyutta Nikaya 22.102

    Aniccāsañña sutta

    Impermanence (of perception)

    Translated by F.L. Woodward

    At Savatthi... Then the Exalted One said:

    “The perceiving of impermanence, brethren, if practised and enlarged, wears out (pariyādiyati) all sensual lust, wears out all lust for body, wears out all desire for rebirth, wears out all ignorance, tears out all conceit of “I am”.

    Just as, brethren, in the autumn season a ploughman ploughing with a great ploughshare, cuts through the spreading roots as he ploughs; even so, brethren, the perceiving of impermanence, if practised and enlarged, wears out all sensual lust, wears out all lust for body, wears out all desire for rebirth, wears out all ignorance, tears out all conceit of “I am”.

    Just as, brethren, when a bunch of mangoes is cut from the stalk, all the mangoes that are joined to the stalk go along with it; even so, brethren, the perceiving of impermanence, if practised and enlarged, wears out all sensual lust, wears out all lust for body, wears out all desire for rebirth, wears out all ignorance, tears out all conceit of “I am”.

    Just as, brethren, a reed-cutter cuts down a reed, and grasping it by the end shakes it up and down and to and fro and tosses it aside (nicchodeti); even so, brethren, the perceiving of impermanence, if practised and enlarged, wears out all sensual lust, wears out all lust for body, wears out all desire for rebirth, wears out all ignorance, tears out all conceit of “I am”.

    Just as, brethren, in a peaked house (kūtฺaninnā ) all rafters whatsoever go together to the peak, slope to the peak, join in the peak, and of them all the peak holds chief place; even so, brethren, the perceiving of impermanence, if practised and enlarged, wears out all sensual lust, wears out all lust for body, wears out all desire for rebirth, wears out all ignorance, tears out all conceit of “I am”.

    Just as, brethren, of all scented woods the dark sandal-wood is reckoned chief, even so is it with the perceiving of impermanence, which if practised and enlarged, wears out all sensual lust, wears out all lust for body, wears out all desire for rebirth, wears out all ignorance, tears out all conceit of “I am”.

    Just as, brethren, of all scented heart-woods the red sandalwood is reckoned chief, even so it is with the perceiving of impermanence, which if practised and enlarged, wears out all sensual lust, wears out all lust for body, wears out all desire for rebirth, wears out all ignorance, tears out all conceit of “I am”.

    Just as, brethren, of all scented flowers the jasmine is reckoned chief, even so it is with the perceiving of impermanence, which if practised and enlarged, wears out all sensual lust, wears out all lust for body, wears out all desire for rebirth, wears out all ignorance, tears out all conceit of “I am”.

    Just as, brethren, all petty princes whatsoever are subject to (anuyantā ) a universal monarch; just as the universal monarch is reckoned chief of them, so it is with the perceiving of impermanence, which if practised and enlarged, wears out all sensual lust, wears out all lust for body, wears out all desire for rebirth, wears out all ignorance, tears out all conceit of “I am”.

    Just as, brethren, of all starry bodies whatsoever the radiance does not equal one-sixteenth part of the moon’s radiance; just as the moon is reckoned chief of them, even so it is with the perceiving of impermanence, which if practised and enlarged, wears out all sensual lust, wears out all lust for body, wears out all desire for rebirth, wears out all ignorance, tears out all conceit of “I am”.

    Just as, brethren, in the autumn season, when the sky (devo) is opened up and cleared of clouds, the sun, leaping up into the firmament (abbhussakkamāno) drives away the darkness from the heavens, and shines and burns and flashes forth; even so, brethren, perceiving of impermanence, which if practised and enlarged, wears out all sensual lust, wears out all lust for body, wears out all desire for rebirth, wears out all ignorance, tears out all conceit of “I am”.

    And in what way, brethren, does it so wear them out?

    It is by seeing: “Such is body; such is the arising of body; such is the ceasing of body. Such is feeling; such is the arising of feeling; such is the ceasing of feeling. Such is perception; such is the arising of perception; such is the ceasing of perception. Such are activities; such is the arising of activities; such is the ceasing of activities. Such is consciousness; such is the arising of consciousness; such is the ceasing of consciousness.

    Even thus practised and enlarged, brethren, does the perceiving of impermanence wear out all sensual lust, all lust for body, all desire for rebirth, wears out all ignorance, tears out all conceit of “I am”.

  4. Спасибо от:

    Esanandhavanatthāyadipa (15.05.2009)

  5. #3
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    В следующей сутте описаны 520 видов практики, в том числе 65 видов практики апперцепции непостоянства (6 дверей чувств на 10 элементов взаимообуcловленного возникновения -- это шестьдесят, плюс пять совокупностей в целом).

    Anguttara Nikaya 7.95-622

    Āhuneyyavaggo

    Persons worthy of offerings

    Translated by E. M. Hare

    “Monks, there are these seven persons, worthy of offerings, worthy of gifts, worthy of oblations, the world’s peerless field for merit. What seven?

    Monks, herein a monk abides seeing the impermanence of the eye, conscious of it, aware of it, at all times, continually, without a break, working it mentally, fathoming it by wisdom; and destroying the cankers, he enters and abides in the cankerless mind-emancipation … ; this, monks, is the first person worthy of offerings, worthy of gifts, worthy of oblations, the world’s peerless field for merit.

    Again, consider one who likewise abides seeing the impermanence of the eye, conscious of it, aware of it, at all times, continually, without a break, working it mentally, fathoming it by wisdom; and for him the cankers’ ending and life’s ending are at the same time, not one before and one after; this, monks, is the second person worthy of offerings, worthy of gifts, worthy of oblations, the world’s peerless field for merit.

    Again, consider one so abiding, seeing the impermanence of the eye, conscious of it, aware of it, at all times, continually, without a break, working it mentally, fathoming it by wisdom, who, destroying the five lower fetters, after an interval becomes completely cool [Non-returner -- antarāparinibbāyin]; this, monks, is the third person worthy of offerings, worthy of gifts, worthy of oblations, the world’s peerless field for merit.

    Again, consider one so abiding, seeing the impermanence of the eye, conscious of it, aware of it, at all times, continually, without a break, working it mentally, fathoming it by wisdom, who, destroying the five lower fetters, after lessening his period, becomes completely cool [Non-returner -- upahaccaparinibbāyin]; this, monks, is the fourth person worthy of offerings, worthy of gifts, worthy of oblations, the world’s peerless field for merit.

    Again, consider one so abiding, seeing the impermanence of the eye, conscious of it, aware of it, at all times, continually, without a break, working it mentally, fathoming it by wisdom, who, destroying the five lower fetters, without (karmic) residue becomes completely cool [Non-returner -- asankhāraparinibbāyin]; this, monks, is the fifth person worthy of offerings, worthy of gifts, worthy of oblations, the world’s peerless field for merit.

    Again, consider one so abiding, seeing the impermanence of the eye, conscious of it, aware of it, at all times, continually, without a break, working it mentally, fathoming it by wisdom, who, destroying the five lower fetters, with some residue becomes completely cool [Non-returner -- sasankhāraparinibbāyin]; this, monks, is the sixth person worthy of offerings, worthy of gifts, worthy of oblations, the world’s peerless field for merit.

    Again, consider one so abiding, seeing the impermanence of the eye, conscious of it, aware of it, at all times, continually, without a break, working it mentally, fathoming it by wisdom, who, destroying the five lower fetters, becomes part of the upward stream, bound for the highest (Akanitฺtฺha); this, monks, is the seventh person worthy of offerings, worthy of gifts, worthy of oblations, the world’s peerless field for merit.

    Verily, monks, these seven persons are worthy of offerings, worthy of gifts, worthy of oblations, the world’s peerless field for merit.”

    (Other worthy persons)

    “Monks, there are these (other) persons, worthy of offerings, worthy of gifts, worthy of oblations, the world’s peerless field for merit.

    Herein a monk abides seeing the impermanence … ill … no self … destruction … decay … dispassion … ending … renunciation (each in seven degrees of perfection) in respect of:

    a)
    The eye _ shapes _ visual consciousness _ visual contact
    The ear _ sounds _ auditory consciousness _ auditory contact
    The nose _ odours _ olfactory consciousness _ olfactory contact
    The tongue _ tastes _ gustatory consciousness _ gustatory contact
    The touch _ tangibles _ tactile consciousness _ tactile contact
    The mind _ mental states _ representative cognition _ mental contact

    b)
    He abides, seeing impermanence … ill … no self … destruction … decay … dispassion … ending … renunciation (each in seven degrees of perfection) in respect of:

    { Feelings; Perceptions; Intentions; Cravings; Reflections; Deliberations }

    sprung from

    { Visual contact; Auditory contact; Olfactory contact; Gustatory contact; Tactile contact; Mental contact. }

    He abides, seeing impermanence … ill … no self … destruction … decay … dispassion … ending … renunciation (each in seven degrees of perfection) in respect of:

    The body aggregate;
    The feelings aggregate;
    The perceptions aggregate;
    The syntheses aggregate;
    The consciousness aggregate.

    (The Burmese MS. M. adds an Uddāna and observes that this chapter consists of 528 suttas. There appear, however, to be 8 x 6 x 10 suttas in respect of the six senses and their derivatives, and 8 x 5 suttas in respect of the five aggregates, therefore 520 in all. So 3,640 different persons, worthy of offerings, are stated. These recur in many places in the Pitฺakas. See Stcherbatsky’s “The Central Conception of Buddhism”.)

  6. Спасибо от:

    Esanandhavanatthāyadipa (15.05.2009)

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